HYDROGEN FOR AUSTRALIA’S FUTURE https://www.chiefscientist.gov.au/news/hydrogen-australias-future en National Hydrogen Strategy adopted https://www.chiefscientist.gov.au/news-and-media/national-hydrogen-strategy-adopted <h1 class="au-header-heading">National Hydrogen Strategy adopted</h1> <span><span lang="" about="/user/16" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ROettle</span></span> <span>Fri, 2019-11-22 16:57</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Australia’s Chief Scientist, Dr Alan Finkel, presented the National Hydrogen Strategy to the Council of Australian Governments Energy Council in Perth on 22 November 2019.</p> <p>Dr Finkel said, “The strategy is ambitious but I believe that developing clean hydrogen offers a unique opportunity for Australia.”</p> <p>“Australia has the renewable resources, the technology know-how, and the relationships with trading partners to make the most of the changing marketplace that is the energy sector.”</p> <p>“When it comes to capturing and exporting solar and wind electricity by first splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen, clean hydrogen and its derivatives have no equal. Energy importing countries are hungry for hydrogen as part of their emissions reduction agenda, and Australia has the potential to supply much of their needs. We can be the leader in the new industry I call “shipping sunshine”.”</p> <p>The National Hydrogen Strategy is available on the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science <a href="https://www.industry.gov.au/data-and-publications/australias-national-hydrogen-strategy">website</a></p> <p>Watch this <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ygLrTYCR1J8&amp;feature=youtu.be">animation</a> about hydrogen</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-news-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="position-above">Categories</div> <ul class="au-tags"> <li><a href="/news/hydrogen-australias-future" hreflang="en">HYDROGEN FOR AUSTRALIA’S FUTURE</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-featured-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Featured image</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/media/1198" hreflang="en">Hydrogen tile</a></div> </div> Fri, 22 Nov 2019 05:57:50 +0000 ROettle 1321 at https://www.chiefscientist.gov.au A message from the Chief Scientist: Australia's Hydrogen Potential https://www.chiefscientist.gov.au/2019/07/a-message-from-the-chief-scientist-australias-hydrogen-potential <h1 class="au-header-heading">A message from the Chief Scientist: Australia&#039;s Hydrogen Potential</h1> <span><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span>Wed, 2019-07-10 10:00</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>“Imagine a zero-emissions fuel that exists on Earth in abundance, can be easily extracted using basic chemistry and offers jobs and investment in Australia for decades to come.</p> <p>That substance exists: it’s called hydrogen.”</p> <p>Dr Finkel has written a letter highlighting the opportunities presented by a hydrogen fuel economy, to accompany the release of the COAG Energy Council Working Group’s issues papers on the development of a National Hydrogen Strategy.</p> <p>The full letter is available on the <a href="https://www.industry.gov.au/news-media/australias-hydrogen-potential-a-message-from-the-chief-scientist">Department of Industry, Innovation and Science website</a>.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-news-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="position-above">Categories</div> <ul class="au-tags"> <li><a href="/news/hydrogen-australias-future" hreflang="en">HYDROGEN FOR AUSTRALIA’S FUTURE</a></li> <li><a href="/news/articles" hreflang="en">Articles</a></li> </ul> </div> Wed, 10 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 856 at https://www.chiefscientist.gov.au National Hydrogen Strategy – Issues papers released https://www.chiefscientist.gov.au/2019/07/national-hydrogen-strategy-issues-papers-released <h1 class="au-header-heading">National Hydrogen Strategy – Issues papers released</h1> <span><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span>Wed, 2019-07-03 10:00</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The COAG Energy Council Working Group has now released a series of nine issues papers inviting the public to provide feedback into the development of a National Hydrogen Strategy.</p> <p>Dr Finkel has penned a <a href="https://www.industry.gov.au/news-media/australias-hydrogen-potential-a-message-from-the-chief-scientist">message from the Chief Scientist</a> accompanying the release, highlighting the opportunities hydrogen can bring to Australia.</p> <p>The issues papers are available on the <a href="https://consult.industry.gov.au/national-hydrogen-strategy-taskforce/national-hydrogen-strategy-issues-papers/">COAG website</a>.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-news-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="position-above">Categories</div> <ul class="au-tags"> <li><a href="/news/hydrogen-australias-future" hreflang="en">HYDROGEN FOR AUSTRALIA’S FUTURE</a></li> </ul> </div> Wed, 03 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 858 at https://www.chiefscientist.gov.au Speech: Opening panellist remarks for the International Energy Agency Workshop on Hydrogen https://www.chiefscientist.gov.au/2019/03/speech-opening-panellist-remarks-for-the-international-energy-agency-workshop-on-hydrogen <h1 class="au-header-heading">Speech: Opening panellist remarks for the International Energy Agency Workshop on Hydrogen</h1> <span><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span>Tue, 2019-03-12 12:00</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Dr Finkel gave a speech at the International Energy Agency on 11 February 2019 in Paris, France.In his speech he outlines some of the motivations for an increasing focus on hydrogen. A pdf of the speech is <a href="/sites/default/files/Feb-2019-IEA-workshop-on-hydrogen.pdf">here</a>. The full transcript of the speech is below.</p> <p>Thinking about the challenges for today’s meeting, I could not help but reflect on the dreams of the last 150 years. Dreams full of promise, not yet delivered.</p> <p>Why is today’s dream different from all the earlier dreams?</p> <p>In 1874, Jules Verne wrote a science-fiction novel called The Mysterious Island, in which the hero, Cyrus Harding, waxed lyrical about hydrogen.</p> <p><em>“Yes, but water decomposed into its primitive elements,” replied Cyrus Harding, “and decomposed doubtless, by electricity, which will then have become a powerful and manageable force… Yes, my friends, I believe that water will one day be employed as fuel, that hydrogen and oxygen which constitute it, used singly or together, will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light, of an intensity of which coal is not capable. Someday the coal-rooms of steamers and the tenders of locomotives will, instead of coal, be stored with these two condensed gases, which will burn in the furnaces with enormous calorific power.”</em></p> <p>In 1923, British biologist JBS Haldane painted his vision for a renewable energy economy powered by “rows of metallic windmills” producing electricity for “electrolytic decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen” that would be stored, then recombined in “oxidation cells” to produce electricity when needed.</p> <p>We were there again in the 1970s, when the oil shock helped to popularise the hitherto fringe ideas of John Bockris, an American academic based at Flinders University in South Australia. It was Bockris who coined the term “hydrogen economy”, and Bockris who brought the concept into the academic mainstream at the first-ever global Hydrogen Energy conference in 1974.</p> <p>You remember the story of the boy who cried wolf. Why should the politicians, businesses and consumers believe the message this time round?</p> <p>Because a lot has changed.</p> <p>It is up to us to explain it, to take the fiction out of 'science fiction’ and focus on the science. And we have to do so based on a mix of proven achievement and yet to be fulfilled ambition.</p> <p>The importance of the energy transition that we will be part of cannot be overstated. Nothing is more essential to civilisation than energy.</p> <p>In 2003, Richard Smalley, who in 1996 won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovering a spherical form of carbon called Buckminsterfullerene, published his list of the top ten problems facing humanity. Top of his list was <em>energy</em>, followed by water and food.</p> <p>But energy production and energy use contribute massively to carbon dioxide emissions and thus climate change. For example, in Australia, more than 75% of our emissions are in the energy-intensive sectors: electricity, transport, heating and fugitive releases. Thus, for the best return on effort, it makes great sense to focus on decarbonising these sectors.</p> <p>Ultimately, we can get all our primary energy from zero emissions electricity through solar, wind, hydro and perhaps nuclear. However, although electrons are versatile, they are not <em>always</em> the best way to use that energy. We need storage, and we need a transportable fuel to replace oil and gas.</p> <p>Nothing could be simpler, more capable or cleaner than hydrogen to deliver these capabilities.</p> <p>So, what has changed since the dreams of Jules Verne, JBS Haldane and John Bockris? Why has the Japanese Government asked the IEA to prepare a comprehensive study on hydrogen energy and economics as a key input to the G20 Ministerial Meeting in June this year?</p> <p>Three things have changed and converged to make the dream achievable.</p> <p>First, we are in the midst of a growing determination to decarbonise our societies. It is a determination shared by most countries, many represented here today. But Japan gets a special mention: 94% of all its energy is imported coal, oil and natural gas. Japan needs a breakthrough solution, and by using hydrogen as an alternative fuel Japan will go a long way to decarbonising its economy.</p> <p>Second, plummeting production costs, especially solar and wind to generate the electricity for electrolysis.</p> <p>Third, plummeting utilisation costs, especially in fuel cells. The price to produce fuel cells dropped by a factor of 20 between 2008 and 2015, and has continued to fall since then.</p> <p>Making it work will require international partnerships. Every country has different needs and unique offerings to contribute. Take Japan and Australia: Japan is interested in importing hydrogen. Its first domestic uses will be for electricity generation and transport. Australia is interested in becoming a hydrogen exporting nation. Our first domestic uses will be for heating and transport.</p> <p>In all cases, countries must consider:</p> <ul> <li>Safety in everything we do.</li> <li>The costs of production and utilisation.</li> <li>The smartest means of shipping sunshine internationally.</li> <li>Minimising the impact on our land and water supplies.</li> <li>Economic growth. Hydrogen utilisation can provide new jobs and new industries – Japan and the Republic of Korea have recognised this explicitly in their national hydrogen plans.</li> </ul> <p>And, of course, for hydrogen to be a low emissions fuel, the production must also be associated with low net emissions.</p> <p>We cannot simply shift the emissions from the consumers to the producers.</p> <p>To avoid that, we need an internationally agreed threshold for the amount of carbon dioxide that can be emitted during production and still qualify to be called 'carbon-free’ hydrogen.</p> <p>There are three things about the hydrogen economy that keep me awake at night:</p> <p>First, safety. But then I reflect on our decades of safe industrial use of hydrogen and I am confident we can manage this.</p> <p>Second, costs. But then I reflect on the stunning rate of cost reduction in solar and wind electricity generation and I am confident we can manage this.</p> <p>Third, the transition from demonstration projects to commercial projects. I reflect on the large and growing number of demonstration projects but the paucity of commercial projects and I toss and turn thinking about how to traverse the valley. It is our biggest challenge, and I am pleased it will be discussed extensively today.</p> <p>Assuming we can make the leap to commercial scale, to meet the global future needs the volume to be produced is huge.</p> <p>The Hydrogen Council is predicting a hydrogen market of more than $2 trillion per year by 2050.</p> <p>Can we make enough? Cheaply enough?</p> <p>Yes, by scaling up, reducing the input costs for production, and adopting internationally agreed standards.</p> <p>But we will also need research and development to deliver further efficiency improvements.</p> <p>Given the role of fuel cells in electricity generation and transport, every 1% improvement in fuel-cell efficiency will save tens of billions of dollars.</p> <p>Every 1% improvement in electrolysis efficiency will save tens of billions of dollars.</p> <p>Ongoing investment in research and development will pay back the investment many times over.</p> <p>We’ve done this in other industries. Many of you will have followed the stunning improvements in the efficiency of light emitting diodes, which have gone from being less efficient than a candle when I started Electrical Engineering more than forty years ago to outshining every other form of lighting today.</p> <p>Lastly, as we decarbonise our economies, we need to move past the false dichotomy of low prices or low emissions – our unrelenting ambition should be to have both.</p> <p>We need to embrace change for economic advantage and environmental advantage.</p> <p>By embracing change and new technologies we can have our cake and eat it too.</p> <p>Buckminster Fuller, the famous architect, inventor and futurist, after whom buckminsterfullerene was named, said it best:</p> <p><em>“You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete.”</em></p> <p>Let’s build that new model, through vision, determination and international cooperation.</p> <p>Thank you.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-news-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="position-above">Categories</div> <ul class="au-tags"> <li><a href="/news/speeches" hreflang="en">Speeches</a></li> <li><a href="/news/hydrogen-australias-future" hreflang="en">HYDROGEN FOR AUSTRALIA’S FUTURE</a></li> </ul> </div> Tue, 12 Mar 2019 01:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 695 at https://www.chiefscientist.gov.au Interview: Politico – Hydrogen and the export potential for Australia https://www.chiefscientist.gov.au/2019/03/interview-politico-hydrogen-and-the-export-potential-for-australia <h1 class="au-header-heading">Interview: Politico – Hydrogen and the export potential for Australia</h1> <span><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span>Tue, 2019-03-12 11:00</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Dr Finkel was interviewed by Politico during his recent visit to Europe. Kalina Oroschakoff and Paola Tamma discussed hydrogen energy and its export potential for Australia with the Chief Scientist. A pdf of the article is available <a href="/sites/default/files/Feb-2019-interview-with-Politico-re-hydrogen.pdf">here</a>. The full article is below.</p> <p><strong>POLITICO: Q and A with Australia’s Chief Scientist Alan Finkel</strong></p> <p>The global push to cut greenhouse gas emissions could wreak havoc on Australia’s coal and gas exports, which is why the country is keen on hydrogen.</p> <p>Australia could use renewable energy to produce clean hydrogen by splitting water, or make it with coal and gas — although that does create worries about boosting carbon dioxide emissions, Alan Finkel, Australia’s chief scientist, told POLITICO in Brussels earlier this month.</p> <p>“We’ve reached parity with Qatar as the world’s largest exporter of [liquefied natural gas], we are the world’s largest exporter of coal, we’re an energy superpower, and we have the potential to be, if not the largest, one of the most significant hydrogen exporters,” Finkel said.</p> <p>Although electricity is often seen as the key technology to get the world to decarbonize, hydrogen does have its advocates. They argue that the zero-emission fuel involves fewer compromises to existing energy and transport industries than electrification.</p> <p><strong>POLITICO: Why push hydrogen? The idea has been around for decades and hasn’t really taken off.</strong></p> <p><strong>ALAN FINKEL:</strong> Something’s changed. First of all, it’s the determination to decarbonize. The second thing is the plummeting cost of green, clean electricity generation. Solar and wind are just getting better and better; the sweet spot of making hydrogen at an economic level is when you can do electricity at about $10 per megawatt-hour. [But], it’s going to be hard.</p> <p><strong>POLITICO: Can hydrogen be a substitute for natural gas?</strong></p> <p><strong>ALAN FINKEL:</strong> If you’re looking at heating houses, or running your stoves that run today on natural gas, what’s the alternative? One alternative is, you electrify the heating, and electrify the cooking. But that has a lot of expenses associated with it. Also, if you try to heat your houses in the winter and you’ve gone on a fully renewable system, you’ve got the massive expense of storing. Studies do show that hydrogen substitution of natural gas is significantly less expensive than electricity substitution of natural gas.</p> <p><strong>POLITICO: What else could hydrogen be good for?</strong></p> <p><strong>ALAN FINKEL:</strong> Clearly, there are occasions where electricity is not the most convenient form of energy. Think about maritime operations. At the moment, they’re using bunker fuel which is the dirtiest kind of fuel. Hydrogen is really convenient for heavy-duty transport, in trucks, for trains, for shipping, and so it’s an important part of the future economy.</p> <p><strong>POLITICO: How can clean hydrogen be made at scale?</strong></p> <p><strong>ALAN FINKEL:</strong> You make it from water, with electricity, through a process called electrolysis. You capture the hydrogen, you compress it, you pipe it, you ship it, you sell it, you use it. The challenge is to do that at scale. We’re talking about a swimming pool every second, or more. We’re talking about massive quantities of electricity and water being converted into hydrogen.</p> <p><strong>POLITICO: What are the challenges facing hydrogen?</strong></p> <p><strong>ALAN FINKEL:</strong> The first is ensuring that the industry operates safely.The second is costs. No one’s done [green hydrogen] at scale yet.The third challenge is the one I’ve been talking here in Europe to people about. How do you get from demonstration projects to commercial scale? Who’s going to buy commercial quantities of hydrogen if it’s still expensive, and who’s going to invest in producing hydrogen if there’s no buyers?</p> <p><strong>POLITICO: What about coal? Is it a potential resource for making hydrogen?</strong></p> <p><strong>ALAN FINKEL:</strong> It’s not practical at the moment for black coal, because black coal, whether you like it or not, has huge international market potential, especially in Asia. So, they’re not going to sell it cheaply for hydrogen production.</p> <p>What’s happening with lignite is that as coal electricity stations are closing, there’s no other application. That coal is a wasted asset, has no international sales potential whatsoever. So, you’ve got a virtually free fuel, a well-known [gasification] technology which means you can make hydrogen quite cheaply and at large scale. The only challenge is CCS [carbon capture and storage]. There’s been a 10-year science effort to identify offshore, under-the-sea bed, kilometer-down places to bury the carbon dioxide close to the coal fields. The projected economics are quite good.</p> <p><strong>POLITICO: How do you overcome environmental concerns?</strong></p> <p><strong>ALAN FINKEL:</strong> Some of the people we’ve been talking with here, the officials, they are very concerned that communities will not be comfortable. But, in Japan, in Korea, other countries, they’d be quite comfortable as long as the hydrogen has been certified through a traceable process to show that it was low-carbon dioxide emissions during manufacture.</p> <p><strong>POLITICO: How much solar and wind do you need to produce all that hydrogen?</strong></p> <p><strong>ALAN FINKEL:</strong> We’re talking a scale that you have not yet begun to comprehend. We’re talking about solar and wind at 10 times the level that you would use to run your cities and everything else on electricity.</p> <p>Australia generates 250 terawatt-hours electricity today, but we would build dedicated solar plants that are not even connected to the electrical system. And that would be over 1,000, maybe 2,000 terawatt-hours —massively big. The challenge is high. That’s why, maybe, as we go forward, there’ll be a need not just for solar and wind to generate hydrogen, but also for coal and natural gas to hydrogen. Norway is looking at natural gas to hydrogen, because they’ve got the ability to capture and store the carbon dioxide in the depleted oil wells.</p> <p><strong>POLITICO: How do you see a future global system for selling hydrogen working?</strong></p> <p><strong>ALAN FINKEL:</strong> What we don’t want to do is have a country produce hydrogen with massive carbon dioxide emissions. From the planet’s point of view, we might be worse off. If you do properly regulated, developed and implemented CCS, in principle this could be as low emissions as solar- and wind-produced hydrogen. Studies are optimistic.</p> <p><em>This interview has been edited for length and clarity.</em></p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-news-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="position-above">Categories</div> <ul class="au-tags"> <li><a href="/news/interviews" hreflang="en">Interviews</a></li> <li><a href="/news/hydrogen-australias-future" hreflang="en">HYDROGEN FOR AUSTRALIA’S FUTURE</a></li> </ul> </div> Tue, 12 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 1224 at https://www.chiefscientist.gov.au Briefing Paper: Hydrogen for Australia's future https://www.chiefscientist.gov.au/2018/08/briefing-paper-hydrogen-for-australias-future <h1 class="au-header-heading">Briefing Paper: Hydrogen for Australia&#039;s future</h1> <span><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span>Fri, 2018-08-17 10:00</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The Hydrogen Strategy Group, chaired by Australia’s Chief Scientist Dr Alan Finkel, has today released a briefing paper on the potential domestic and export opportunities of a hydrogen industry in Australia.</p> <p>The briefing paper was prepared for the COAG Energy Council meeting, which took place on 10 August 2018.</p> <p>Download the <a href="/sites/default/files/HydrogenCOAGWhitePaper_WEB.pdf">Hydrogen for Australia’s future</a> briefing paper [PDF].</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-news-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="position-above">Categories</div> <ul class="au-tags"> <li><a href="/news/hydrogen-australias-future" hreflang="en">HYDROGEN FOR AUSTRALIA’S FUTURE</a></li> </ul> </div> Fri, 17 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Anonymous 865 at https://www.chiefscientist.gov.au